Three Domestic Systems For U. S. to Get HAC Craft Hughes News September 14, 1973

$150 Million Satellite Projects Seen

Hughes Aircraft Company’s Space and Communications Group will have an additional $150 millions in business with the decision by the Federal Communications Commission to authorize five additional domestic satellite systems.

Granted were applications by American Satellite Corporation, RCA Global Communications, GTE/Hughes Satellite Corporation, American Telephone and Telegraph Company/Comsat and Communications Satellite Corporation.

Hughes will build the satellites for the AMSAT, GTE/Hughes and ATT/Comsat systems.  The company last week signed a $65.9 million contract with Comsat for four satellites to serve the continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico.

(Previously, the FCC had approved an application by Western Union Telegraph Company, for which Hughes will build three satellites.)

Vice President Albert D. Wheelon, Group executive said the FCC decision was welcome for two reasons:  “Approximately $200 million of private capital will be invested in the aerospace industry.  Part of this investment will go to McDonnell-Douglas and General Dynamics companies for rocket boosters.  The remainder is for the communications satellites to be built for the ATT/Comsat, GTE/Hughes, and ATT/Comsat systems.”

Dr. Wheelon added, “This is the largest single injection of private capital into the space industry and marks a turning point in that it represents the development of a substantial non-government market for spacecraft and booster manufacturers.  This opportunity comes at a time when defense and NASA funding of satellite development is declining and is thus doubly welcome.”

“While communications satellites have been used to carry international traffic for 10 years, U. S. space technology will now be put to work for the 200 million people who supported the development of this technology.  With the Western Union systems authorized early this year, the decision by the FCC guarantees that a breadth of innovative and improved domestic communications services will be available starting in 1974”

$66 Million Contract For Satellites Placed by Comsat General– Hughes News October 12, 1972

 

Comsat General Corporation has awarded Hughes a $65.9 million contract for four advanced high-capacity satellites which will be operated by Comsat under a lease arrangement for the American Telephone and Telegraph Company.

Comsat General’s contract followed the Federal Communications Commission’s Sept. 12 approval of five U. S. domestic satellite systems, four of which will use satellites built by HAC’s Space and Communications Group

Immediately after the FCC action Comsat President Joseph V. Charyk executed the agreements calling for the first delivery in late 1975.  Vice President Albert D. Wheelon, S&CG executive on behalf of Allen E. Puckett, executive vice president and assistant general manager.

Anik-Type Family

A whole family of Anik-I type satellites is being built in S&CG with Western Union’s Westar for telecommunications and TV slated for service by next summer.  (Hughesnews Aug. 18, 1972).  The WU system was approved earlier by the FCC.

The General Telephone and Electronics Corporation and the American Satellite Corporation also had systems approved by the FCC in the Sept. 12 action.

ASC has ordered three Anik-type satellites (Hughesnews March 30), and expects them to be operational by the third quarter of 1974.

GTE has contracted with the Hughes subsidiary National Satellite Services for 10 leased channels on a 12-transponder satellite.  GTE plans a September operational dated on its domestic system to provide either 12,000 one-way voice-grade circuits, 10 TV channels or various combinations.

Comsat’s order for four spacecraft, each having twice the capacity of the Intelsat IVs, will result in these Hughes-built satellites covering the U. S. territorial limits for the decade following launch in 1976.

Although design life is seven years, S&CG engineers are eyeing the possibility of 10 years service for these advanced spacecraft.  With 24 channels compared to the Intelsat IV’s 12 and Intelsat IVA’s 20, the Comsat domestic birds will be bigger, standing about 18 feet high and weighing about 3200 pounds in orbit.

Three Antennas

To provide coverage over a third of the earth’s circumference the spacecraft will have three antennas.  Each satellite will be placed in geostationary orbit at 22,300 miles altitude and have a capacity for approximately 14,000 two-way high quality voice circuits.

Frequencies will be used in the presently allocated 4 and 6 Gigahertz bands.  Horizontally and vertically polarized transmit and receive antennas will be mounted atop the spin-stabilized body of each spacecraft.

Through the first-time application of the cross-polarization technique on a commercial satellite, the entire frequency band will be utilized twice by each satellite, thus doubling capacity and conserving limited spectrum space.

In addition, each satellite will carry amillimeter wave experimental package permitting tests and development of higher frequencies near 19 and 28 Gigahertz for possible future commercial satellite applications.

The contact signing was preceded by final negotiations between Comsat officers and S&CG’s Contracts Director Chuck LeFever, Program Manager Al Owens, Assistant Program Manager Dick Hemmerling, and Steve Parker senior contract negotiator.

Clell McKinney of HAC’s Corporate Marketing office in Washington DC provided assistance.

Further Notes—Jack Fisher

Comstar, with the Hughes designation HS-351, was based upon the Hughes Intelsat IV and IVA designs with a number of improvements.  Four satellites were built and launched by the Atlas Centaur—the first two in 1976 and the other two in 1978 and 1981—providing telephone service for ATT and GTE.  The Comstar program and spacecraft design are described in the Spring 1977 issue of the COMSAT Technical Review—see http://www.comara.org/legacy/ctr/CTR_V07-1_Spring_1977-Comstar.pdf

The fourth Comstar launched in 1981 has a very interesting history having been sold to the island nation of Tonga, a Pacific archipelago.  For an account of that history see Dwayne Day’s article in the Space Review.

http://www.thespacereview.com/article/1787/1

Hughes donated a model of the Comstar satellite to the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum.  Photographs of the model can be seen at https://airandspace.si.edu/collection-objects/model-communications-satellite-comstar

 

HAC Bidding to Build U.S. Domestic Satellite System—Hughes News January 15, 1971

Primarily for Cable TV

The Federal Communications Commission is considering a Hughes Aircraft application for a nationwide domestic satellite system primarily for cable television operations.

As planned by the Space and Communications Group the system would have two 12-channel synchronous satellites above the equator, a large ground transmitting station at each end of the country, and from 100 to 500 small receiving stations. Cost would be between $50 million and $80 million.

Channels Leased

General Telephone already has leased eight channels on one satellite for seven years at $50 million. The channels would provide 10,000 telephone circuits. The firm plans a $27 million independent system, which could be operating two years after FCC approval of the Hughes proposal.

The drum-shaped satellites, 6 feet in diameter and weighing 1120 pounds, would have an estimated seven-year operational life in orbits 22,300 miles above the equator. The 5-foot diameter parabolic antennas would be trained on the 60-foot transmission antennas of the earth stations below. The earth stations would beam up television programs which the satellites would transmit to local stations, using 30 or 40-foot receiving antennas scattered over the U.S.

Third of Year

General Telephone would use its channels to relay facsimile, high speed data signals and TV signals in addition to telephone messages. Its earth stations would be at Triunfo Pass north of Los Angeles, in Florida, Indiana, and Pennsylvania.

The Hughes-General Telephone proposal is the third of its type filed this year with the FCC. Others have been filed by Western Union Corporation and the American Telephone and Telegraph acting jointly with Comsat Corporation.